LED

Technic LED Technology





Technic’s process chemistry and equipment play a major role in today’s advanced LED manufacturing. Our experience and focus for high quality products that meet and exceed industry standards along with our commitment to ongoing research and development, assure our customers of our ability to meet the technical demands, highest quality, and ongoing supply for this growing industry.


The most common LED structures are composed of a number of process steps and technologies that are a significant part of Technic’s core product lines.


These include:


As we work with manufacturers around the globe to meet an ever growing demand for advanced LED products, our team of research chemists and engineers continue to develop new processes that help advance manufacturing production quality and cost.

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LED Components and Structure

Light-emitting diodes (LED) are tiny devices made from semiconductor materials that convert electrical energy into visible and near-UV wavelengths when they are assembled in a package and connected to an electrical circuit. Specifically, the semiconductor materials are crystals comprised of combinations of two or three elements, such as gallium phosphide (GaP) or gallium indium nitride (GaInN). These unique combinations of elements have distinctive crystalline structures that can accommodate both electrons (negatively charged) and holes (positively charged electron vacancies), which exist at different energy levels, separated by a “band-gap.”


Generally called an LED die or chip, which can vary in size from tenths of a millimeter to more than a square millimeter, the LED permits current to flow in only one direction. This is formed by bringing together two slightly different semiconductor materials, called layers — an n-type layer that has an excess of negative charge (electrons) and a p-type layer that has an excess of positive charge carriers (holes), which are locations for the electrons to fall into. Electrodes are placed on each end of this assembly, or structure. The junction or interface of the two layers (called the p-n junction) is where electrons and holes are injected into an active region.


When a forward voltage is applied to this structure (negative to the n-layer and positive to the p-layer), electrons move from the n layer toward the p layer, and holes move toward the n area. Near the junction, an electron and a hole radiatively recombine, emitting a photon (essentially, the electrons move across the p-n interface and fill holes on the p side, falling into a lower energy level). Ideally, the excess energy from each electron's transition results in the spontaneous emission of a photon. In practice, however, a number of things happen to reduce efficiency — and only a fraction of the electrical energy is converted into useful (generally visible) light.


The energy of the photons, and thus the wavelength, is determined primarily by the energy band gap of the semiconductor, where the recombination occurs. The best aluminum indium gallium (AlInGa) LEDs (red and amber) offer 40% to 50% electrical-to-optical efficiencies. The best indium gallium nitride (InGaN) LEDs (UV, blue, green and white) achieve 30% to 35% conversion efficiencies.